LOCATION: The chosen plot of land is located in the R3a building zone of the Castagnola section and is bordered to the north by Via Massago from which vehicular and pedestrian access is foreseen, to the east by the parcel of land owned by the municipality (green area that cannot be built on), to the west by the public pedestrian stairway and to the south by two plots of land already built on. The parcel is currently occupied by a single-family residential building dating back to the 1950s/60s, which, due to its typological and construction characteristics, does not meet the needs of the new owners, but above all does not comply with the regulations in force from the point of view of the distances from the boundary, so it was decided to completely demolish it. The new construction will have a multi-family dwelling type with 2 flats, the first two floors from the top make up a 5-room flat, while the lowest floor, which has pedestrian access from the public staircase corresponds to the second 3½-room flat. PROJECT: The building, to be used as a two-family dwelling house, presents itself as a compact volume, embedded in the steep slope of the land parcel in question. The new 10.40 metre-high building rests on the lowest level of the plot, so that it protrudes only 2.90 metres from the level of Via Massago, as opposed to the existing situation where the volume is more than 6 metres high at a very close distance from the northern boundary (1.50 m). Towards Via Massago the new volume stands at a distance of over 4 metres, towards the west (public steps) the volume stands at a distance of over 5 metres from the boundary, towards the south the distance from the boundary varies from 5.30 metres to 8.50 metres. Towards the east, the distance from PR imposes 5 metres, and is thus reduced to 2.45 linear metres by means of an agreement between private individuals, which imposes the obligation on the bordering parcel to take over and respect the distance between buildings on different grounds of 10 linear metres. On the highest floor, known as the ground floor, a forecourt is created, at the level of Via Massago through an open access without a gate with a slope of less than 4%, and a depth of manoeuvre adequate to the regulations in force. The aforementioned forecourt accommodates 2 uncovered outdoor parking spaces. It was decided to give up a third parking space (by paying the replacement fee) to allow manoeuvring within the plot, so as to allow the vehicle to exit at right angles to the access road. From this level (+0.65) one can access the common Lift that serves the three floors. The uppermost floor contains the living area of the largest flat, a double height that communicates with the lower floor and its adjacent small garden to the west. The floor below -1, houses 2 bedrooms with 2 bathrooms, the laundry room inside the flat and the common technical room, also at this level (-3.55) there is pedestrian access via the public staircase bordering to the west. The lowest floor, as anticipated, has independent access via the public staircase, as well as being accessible via the common Lift. This level enjoys the relationship with the garden on 3 exposed sides, and contains an independent flat consisting of 2 bedrooms 2 bathrooms and an internal laundry, as well as a living room with open kitchen. Most of this level is underground due to the steep slope of the plot. MATERIALS: The materials used for the foundations and the emerging volume have a load-bearing structure in reinforced concrete, covered by a ventilated façade composed of thermal insulation, an air gap and a natural stone cladding in a dark colour, tending to black. The internal partitions will be of terracotta and mainly plastered plasterboard. The windows and doors will be thermal break aluminium with triple insulating glass. As far as the interior finishes are concerned, the walls and ceilings will be plastered and painted white, while the floors are either covered with parquet in the living and sleeping areas, while the technical rooms with ceramics and the bathrooms have a resin finish in different shades. The plot has a steep slope, with a difference in height between north and south of almost 11 metres, now resolved with retaining walls that create several steps. The new exterior design takes up the concept of retaining walls, recovering existing walls as much as possible, and reinforcing those in a precarious state; the new retaining walls are made of reinforced concrete hidden by climbing vegetation.
Studio "FSA" was established in 2016, it deals with architecture in all its scales, through an analytical and rational design process it seeks to respond to the needs of today's society with an eye towards the future, through architecture capable of integrating into the specific environmental context. It develops the project in all its phases from conception to delivery.